THE IMPORTANCE OF FUN IN THE LIFE OF A PRESCHOOLER
"A child who plays does not waste time but builds and creates himself through various forms of play activities."A. Sawicka
Every child has the right to play and free time. And what does he do in his free time? He's having fun. Play is an activity undertaken of one's own will and for pleasure. Play as the basic form of a child's activity is distinguished by certain features: pleasure, experiencing emotions, activity, voluntariness and gaining knowledge and experience. Playing together has a positive effect on the formation of such personality traits as: camaraderie, patience, kindness, perseverance, sense of responsibility, willingness to help. Play is a natural need of all children and is of great importance for their proper development. It satisfies all the requirements of the mind, stimulating the child to active activity. Preschool age is often called the play age. Play is consistent with the psychophysical structure of the child and has a significant impact on his psychomotor, perceptual, intellectual and aesthetic development. aesthetic. Play is the basic form of a child's activity. It teaches to give, take, share, cooperate and subordinate one's personality in a group. It is an essential factor in the development of abstract thinking . It influences the formation of the ability to direct one's behavior, teaches compliance and adaptation to specific norms and rules of conduct.
In the preschool period, play is the most important activity undertaken by the child. According to Vygotsky, the play of a preschool child is the most important line of his development and therefore play performs many functions in the development of the child, namely the function:
- cognitive – enables the transfer and acquisition of concepts, diverse knowledge.
- functional – allows the child to prepare for the future life; teaches how to establish contacts with peers, teaches to learn and solve problems.
- communicative – the child learns to communicate with others in a way that they understand, and also needs to understand what others have to communicate to him.
- compensatory – allows the child to realize the need for activity, action.
- interpersonal – allows the child to "look into himself", thanks to play he gets to know his capabilities and abilities.
- therapeutic – allows you to relieve and release repressed emotional tensions.
Another division of the play function is presented by E. M. Minczakiewicz :
- educational function – the child educates his senses, improves motor skills, enriches knowledge about the world and about himself, learns to learn about his abilities and evaluate them;
- educational function – the child assimilates various norms, learns the rules of conduct, concludes agreements, the observance of which applies in games with other children;
- therapeutic function – learns different ways of expressing their feelings and solving problems;
- projection function – allows the child to enter into various social roles, giving him the opportunity to realize impossible things in everyday life.
- diagnostic function – the child's behavior during games informs about the world of his inner experiences and about the difficulties he faces.
The diagnostic function is especially valuable for the teacher, parents and psychologists. Children's play time is a time that a teacher, parent, legal guardian should also use to conduct observations. Children playing provide a variety of knowledge about them. During free (any) play, the caregiver can observe the preferred forms of children's play activity. On the basis of observation of games, the teacher can create a partial description of the child's development, indicating the strengths and weaknesses and his potential capabilities.
Teacher, guardian during the observation of children's play: he must be discreet and careful, he can not interfere with the topic and in the way the game is to proceed, he should watch and control the course of play, he can suggest a new way of acting to children, he should help in solving difficulties, he can play with younger children and propose a solution in play, he should provide stimuli in the form of new objects, props to play with.
Psychologist L. Vygotsky emphasizes the importance of play for the multilateral cognitive, emotional-social and manual-motor development of the child, but points out that the value of play is also determined by the individual characteristics of the child's development. Specialists dealing with the importance of games for the development of the child indicate factors influencing the types of games undertaken by children, such as: the state of his health, the degree of physical development, intelligence presenting himself with children's ingenuity, the time of year, the environment in which the child lives, the traditions of home upbringing, the conditions in which the child lives.
In the light of pedagogical and psychological science, many divisions of children's games can be distinguished, e.g. due to their ways of organizing, i.e.:
- free, independent (any) games, undertaken on your own initiative.
- games directed by adults.
- individual games (lonely child).
- group games taking place depending on the degree of socialization.
- parallel games (side by side).
- group games – in which children play together.
Psychological and pedagogical literature describes different types of classification of games according to their content, their terminology is also different and the most frequently repeated distributions of games are:
- manipulative games – often accompanying construction or thematic games consisting in matching, arranging, translating, attaching, trying on, checking, properties of objects and tools, etc.
- construction games – blocks, plasticine, natural material, salt mass. These are games that teach planning, the order of performing activities, making measurements by eye, classifying by color, shape, size, purpose.
- didactic games – educating intellectual skills and serving to consolidate the acquired knowledge and skills of nature, mathematics, society, expand children's vocabulary, etc. These include picture stories, lotteries, puzzles and educational games, riddles, rebuses.
- fun and didactic games – this is a kind of mental entertainment. For games and didactic activities K. Tyborowska counts lotteries, riddles, segregation, emphasizing that in these games the child must comply with certain rules and regulations.
- thematic games also called fictional, imitative, role-playing, as well as creative. In these games, the child assumes self-defined roles related to home and preschool life, taken from children's favorite literature. And the objects, toys accompanying these games often take on symbolic names. These games result from the creative initiative of children, and the role of the teacher is only to observe behavior, also used to diagnose children's social skills.
- research games are a kind of didactic games. They are mainly used for experimentation, discovering physical phenomena of experience with water with a magnet, with light and shadow and properties of objects weight, hardness, heat, type of mass. In them, the child learns to observe carefully, act independently, talk about a specific topic and draw conclusions.
- fun with singing, fun with music. They have a positive effect on the multilateral development of children. They develop musical hearing, sense of rhythm, vocal and dance skills, inspire to play percussion instruments, allow you to learn about various sounds coming from the environment, types of music, as well as its tempo, dynamics and mood.
- tracking games consist of acquiring, searching, extracting, catching. Tracking is looking for traces, signs that need to be named, compared with others, grouped together. Such play awakens the child's cognitive curiosity, activates to action, strengthens faith in one's own strength, raises self-esteem.
- movement games shape the correct posture, and serve to develop motor skills such as: strength, dexterity, agility, endurance. They affect the development of the ability to cooperate in a group, in a team, in a pair. In the kindergarten, various types of these games are organized: orientation-order, running, with an element of balance, on all fours, with an element of throwing, grip, rolling, aiming, with an element of jumping and jumping, with an element of overcoming obstacles, climbing and crawling.
- games and dances integrating the child in a group, developed according to the concept of "play pedagogy" KLANZY from Lublin "Say – and I will forget, show – and I will remember, let me act – and I will understand". These games and dances make it easier to establish contact with others, put you in a good mood, give a sense of security, do not require perfection of performance, just being together and living together, learning from others, without judging and competing.
From the above considerations, it follows that games have a significant impact on the multilateral development of the personality of a preschool child. They provide a lot of joy. They should be properly selected for the stage of development of the child's thinking and his age, as well as allow for independent spontaneity , which over time can be directed. A good organizer of the game parent, teacher should allow the child to become its discoverer and creator, as well as every game and toy, a play partner, is to give the child a sense of security. The task of parents and teachers is to ensure that the game takes place in the right educational atmosphere, safe and not violating the rules of social coexistence.
What does a child learn while playing?
- during play, the child gets to know himself better, increases self-confidence and self-esteem increases.
- important teaching processes are stimulated in play: the ability to solve problems and overcome difficulties, to succeed, to develop imagination, and creative ideas.
- games develop children's intelligence and ingenuity.
- games develop the competence to carefully observe and evaluate participants, the ability to empathize with the situation of the other person and to properly approach him.
- the child trains his motor skills, such as the ability to react quickly and develops cooperation in a group at the same time.
- while playing, the child has the opportunity to overcome ingrained patterns of behavior and acquire skills that are necessary for pro-social behavior and cooperation.
To sum up, play fulfills one of the basic roles in a child's life. It is reflected in every child of his activity. Play – as a kind of "school of life" should be the basic tool for working with preschool children.
"A child who plays alone, calmly, persistently, to the point of bodily weariness, will certainly also become a capable, calm, persistent man, caring for others' and his own well-being." Froebel
"Play is learning, learning is fun. The more fun, the more learning." – G. Doman
Prepared by: Teacher Dominika Kobus, MSc
- Dyner W.J. (1983) Thematic games of children at home and in kindergarten, Wrocław Ossolineum.
- Elkonin D.B. (1984) Psychology of fun, Warsaw WSiP.
- Grzeszkiewicz B. (2003) Social nature of children's games, Preschool Education No. 3(114).
- Tyborowska K. (1966), Wiek przedszkolny in: Żebrowska M. (ed.) Developmental psychology of children and adolescents, Warsaw PWN.
- Wygotski (1971) Selected psychological works, Warsaw PWN.
- Getka, 1994, The role of play in the life of a child. "Education in Kindergarten".
- Więckowski,1996,Therapeutic function of play. "Education in Kindergarten".
- Perch "Fun and Reality" W-wa 1987 .
- Przetacznik-Gierowska,G.Makkieło-Jarża,1992,Developmental and educational psychology of childhood. WSiP . Warsaw.
ECOLOGY AND PRESCHOOLERS
Respect for the surrounding nature is becoming increasingly important in the modern world. Increasingly, and with full awareness, we are beginning to notice the negative effects of human influence on the planet, which will undoubtedly have an impact on the everyday life of future generations. Therefore, we try to maintain a more ecological attitude and introduce new rules of functioning in harmony with nature in the world around us.
We need to take care of our land together and that is why we need to talk to children about nature from an early age and instill in them positive habits related to caring for the environment. It is true that our children, although they are still a few years old, understand more than we might think. It is obvious that we are wondering how to start learning about ecology with a child. How to present it in an accessible way even to the youngest? Initially, it is worth talking to the child and explaining in simple words what ecology does. It is only necessary to use understandable, accessible language and easy concepts for a young person. So what is this ecology? The easiest way to explain to a child is that ecology is everything that surrounds us, plants, animals, land, environment and also our contact with nature.The definition of ecology for young children must be simple and refer to familiar issues. It is best to explain to the child what ecology is figuratively. Ecology is the science of our common home in which we live, that is, the environment. It is also necessary to make the child aware that ecology deals with how nature is influenced by people, animals and plants, i.e. all organisms inhabiting our planet.
In ecological education and upbringing, systematic, direct contact with nature will be important. Thanks to observation and independent examination, children get to know the surrounding world. They will also acquire sensitivity to the world of fauna and flora, they will learn to respect every living organism on earth.
The creation of positive ecological models is important in effective educational interactions. Ecological attitudes and habits should be shaped from early childhood, which is why preschool children should start to develop a caring attitude towards animals and plants and encourage them to take action to protect the natural environment. Preschool age is characterized by a large intellectual leap in the development of the child, so it is the best period for introducing elements of environmental education.
Responsible and planned environmental education will bring children closer to nature and teach them the right approach to the world of plants and animals. In this way, it will be possible to educate conscious and sensitive adults who show respect for the environment.
The main objectives of the science of ecology include:
- arousing interest in important ecological issues, but also social, economic or political issues,
- enabling the acquisition of knowledge and skills necessary for environmental protection,
- realizing how important it is to take care of nature and the immediate environment,
- creating pro-ecological patterns of behavior,
- taking responsibility for nature.
The youngest, and thus also preschool children, quickly assimilate new knowledge about ecology, preschoolers do not assess them immediately move to active action. Children are aware of what ecology is. The use of a simple definition and simple concepts will help them better understand this issue and move on to action. Each of us, regardless of age, professional, social and material status, can contribute to the improvement of the world around us, so we should remember this and shape an ecological attitude by:
- conscious spending time outdoors;
- saving water, e.g. by turning off the water when brushing teeth or washing dishes;
- reducing the use of plastic, not buying plastic straws, disposable cutlery or water bottles;
- turning off the light when we leave the room;
- packing purchases into material nets instead of plastic disposables;
- not throwing away clothing that we do not use, toys from which our children have grown, giving them to others, e.g. in designated containers or at collection points;
- choosing a mass means of transport in the city, a bicycle, a scooter instead of a car;
- systematic and reliable sorting of garbage;
- planting trees and plants;
- collecting rainwater in home gardens;
- installation and use of pro-ecological sources of "green energy", which are powered by solar energy – photovoltaic cells, wind and water;
- heating houses in accordance with the principles of the Clean Air Programme.
A family home for a child is like the heart of the universe. For our children, everything starts and ends there, which is why household members and parents presenting pro-ecological attitudes will quickly teach their children ecology. Adults segregating garbage will certainly be easier to instill waste management principles in a child than those who do not. For the little ones, it can be a lot of fun, especially if we allow them to segregate on their own and teach them which basket to throw paper, plastic, and where glass and tell them what happens to these raw materials afterwards. At every opportunity, children can be taught pro-ecological principles. The instilled habit of segregating garbage, turning off the light after leaving the room, using energy-saving equipment or light bulbs, the habit of saving water and electricity – turning off the tap while brushing your teeth will certainly pay off in the future for a small person will stay for life.
Maybe many adults, many parents wonder why a child needs ecology, what is it about, what will it give our child? The answer is very simple. Every loving parent wants their children to grow up to be responsible, empathetic and sensitive people. Ecology teaches what kind of people we should be, teaches us to understand the place and role of man that he should play in nature.
The first and most important place for shaping pro-ecological skills and behaviors is the family house and it is not about the building or apartment itself, but about the community that creates this house, a house in which children naturally learn and check various behaviors in everyday life, they develop habits of caring for the environment. Preschoolers are open to the world, gain knowledge by observing, experiencing and exploring the environment, they also enrich their vocabulary. Due to the high pollution and threat to the natural environment in which we live, caused by the intensive development of civilization and irresponsible exploratory human activity, we must incorporate pro-ecological attitudes into our daily lives and seriously engage in awakening ecological sensitivity among children, teaching them a sense of responsibility for the current state and future of the natural environment.
In fulfilling the task of raising our preschoolers to care for and protect the earth, air, the natural world and the entire natural environment, it will help us to apply a few basic principles on a daily basis:
- during walks with the child, pay attention to the surrounding nature, talk about plants, natural monuments, assess the state of cleanliness of natural water bodies and order in the streets and parks;
• teach at home to segregate garbage, segregate together with the child. Use wastelands for construction games with your child. Make from paper rolls, plastic bottles, boxes, packaging, strings and cloths together with the child creatures, cudaks and various types of decorative objects;
• teach to save water when washing hands and teeth, turning off unused electrical appliances and extinguishing unnecessary lighting;
• use pro-ecological sources of "green energy", heat an apartment, a house without a smog effect caused by smoke from the chimney;
- give up plastic, make your child aware that the use of reusable packaging is conducive to environmental protection;
• do not throw away unused undamaged clothing and toys that your child no longer uses, but give them to those in need;
• if possible, replace the trip by car with collective public transport or two-wheelers; • talk to your child about the worldwide World Cleanup Day and the importance of this action for life on earth, take an active part with your child in these actions;
- • set up a seed-to-plant crop with your child at home, set up a backyard garden, collect rainwater and use it to water the lawn and garden plants;
- make the child aware of the dangers threatening human life, caused by pollution and devastation;
• ask your child questions, let them tell you while browsing atlases, albums and watching nature videos;
- • be consistent and conscientious in pro-ecological attitudes, the child seeing that you are truly involved in your activities will teach regularity.
To sum up, in education, ecological education of children is about them growing up to be sensitive, responsible people. By forming a child's sensitivity, they begin to realize the need to protect the environment. Developing the conviction that people's lives are not only about the constant exploitation, exploitation and pollution of the earth, but above all on our part belong to its love and respect. By instilling a sense of responsibility for the state of the natural environment, we instill in children habits and attitudes that will bear fruit throughout their further lives. Feelings tend to be more important to children than facts when we tell them about saving the Earth, ecology, protecting the environment with the negative effects of environmental pollution and, above all, showing what we can all do for our planet and thus for ourselves. Our task is to teach children to think about everything around them with love, reverence and sensitivity. When shaping an eco-preschooler, let's draw his attention to the positive aspects of caring for the environment.
Let's try to make the little man an equal partner for the conversation. This will give the child self-esteem and convince him of the causative power of his own actions. It is important to teach children what we believe and practice, because then we will permanently instill in convincing children to pro-ecological behaviors that they observe in their own homes on a daily basis. So let's teach children ecology and be eco-friendly ourselves, and if so far our attitudes have not always been consistent with the science of ecology, it is a perfect time to change this and be an example for our children.
Prepared by: Teacher Dominika Kobus, MSc
R. Andrzejewski "Encyclopedia .pwn.pl
G. Świderska "What a shell in a young age …", "Education in kindergarten", no. 2/2011.
A. Klim – Klimaszewska, "Pedagogika przedszkolna", Warsaw 2010.
M. Piotrowska, "Friends of Nature", "Preschool Education", no. 4/2012.
That. J. Frątczakowie, Ecological education of preschool children, Kujawsko- Pomorskie Studium Edukacyjne, Bydgoszcz 1996.
The influence of the masses of media, television, computer on the life and development of young children.
Much is written and talked about modern information carriers, which include, among others, television, the Internet, a computer, a telephone. Electronic media have become an important and inseparable element of modern life. They have permanently entered our daily lives.They have become a ubiquitous phenomenon that neither we nor our children can bypass. They are the main source of information about the surrounding world, create an image of contemporary culture, shape tastes and attitudes. They affect our thoughts, will, feelings and imagination. We use newspapers, books, radio and television, telephone and computer. They shape our views and flood us with a torrent of information. Older preschoolers and small students, after returning from kindergarten or school, use their free time to turn on their mobile phone or sit comfortably in front of the TV and watch a program or fairy tale of their choice or play computer games. Everyone is happy with this fact, both children and parents: children because no one wants anything from them, and parents because they finally have some time for themselves. A fairly large group of parents is not aware of the dangers of fairy tales, games and the broadly understood Internet and does not control what their children do. Parents often, when they do not have to exercise direct control and do not have time, prefer that children instead of being on the playground or absorbing caregivers at home – spend time in front of the TV with a phone in their hand or a computer. It is also often the case that adults accept and even encourage to watch television programs, especially of an educational nature, fairy tales and games presented in the Internet , because thanks to them the child not only gains knowledge, learns the richness of the world, which he will not see in the surrounding reality, but also develops his interests.
There is a lot of talk about the impact of television, telephone and computer on the health and development of children, both positively and negatively. The advantages of television and Internet programs such as: enriching the child's knowledge and knowledge of concepts, enriching vocabulary, developing interests, developing emotions and imagination are emphasized. For older preschoolers and younger students there is a wide access to television programs and computer educational, thematic, sports, strategic games, thanks to which children develop their interests in nature, mathematics, language.They improve reading, writing and numeracy skills, eye-hand coordination, memory, develop imagination and strategic thinking.Examples of the positive impact of pro-social content shaping positive character traits, such as friendship, camaraderie, mutual help, compassion, teaching how to behave in various situations, e.g. help in need, comfort, confirming the principle of learning from the screen, are television series and programs shown on Polish Television such as: "Alarm Clock", "Domisie", "Kuchcikowi – cooking on the screen", "There were discoverers",
and in particular fairy tales: "Fifi", "Peppa Pig", "Fireman Sam", "Friends from the yard", "The world of the little princess".Such positive heroes are role models for children, have a strong impact and must be seriously taken into account in upbringing and in the formation of moral attitudes.The media create an additional opportunity to gain knowledge. Thanks to the latest information technology, children can take advantage of many previously inaccessible sources of information, libraries, museums, databases. A computer, a mobile phone creates the opportunity to communicate regardless of place and time. This is particularly important for children from small towns and rural areas, as they can now overcome all barriers related to the possibility of access due to distance, social status
Anyone who has to deal with a child who operates a computer knows that children really like to play with computers. In particular, they can be used to play with a child requiring compensatory and compensatory work and a child capable of maintaining a high level of individualization of work. The computer develops mental activity, supports and makes work, learning, play more attractive, provides joy and satisfaction, shapes the ability to use the acquired information, draw conclusions, inspires confidence in one's own strength and capabilities.
However, despite the enormous popularity and positive values of the media and the Internet, they are also accompanied by criticism regarding the scale of threats they carry. This is particularly evident in the case of the impact of the mass media on children.
Television, telephone with Internet access and a computer are a boon, tools for acquiring knowledge. The controlled use of these modern information carriers by children brings the expected and positive results. However, it is often the case that children watch random programs on TV or on the phone, play games containing inappropriate content, then educational and educational problems arise. Undoubtedly, these carriers act on emotions, imagination and thinking, but not always in the right way, this is because children often do not distinguish truth from fiction, they accept the content of film and programs as reality. Games and fairy tales today contain too many elements of horror – characters, creatures, guided by force, violence and brutality. Many cartoons show crimes, thefts, murders, terrorism broadcasting on adult films and programs. On television, it is difficult to find proposals for a program about friendship and selflessness. The most watched are films in the genre of violence, becoming decoys inviting to the screens and the child builds the conviction that the world is based on violence, and noble goals are achieved by deception. In animated films for children, cartoons have already settled for good in all television stations and the Internet. Very often, the characters of these films use brutal language, and the fight between good and evil is often a fight between fists, knives, sticks, swords. The heroes of such films and cartoons kick themselves, sink, push into the abyss, poison. The evil accumulated in these films is a threat to the psyche of a small child. They do not teach that for bad behavior you have to apologize, and the weaker must be helped. Pure watching of brutal scenes, which are also presented in TV news, immunizes even the most sensitive to human harm and, as a result, significantly reduces sensitivity to other people. Children absorb such scenes they sink deep into their psyche, children become aggressive – they beat, bite, kick, learn violence, become hyperactive, which is evident in the peer group and in family contacts.The negative impact is attributed to computer games as stimulators of aggression. Many games are based solely on the use of violence and this violence is decided by children sitting behind the keyboard. Children eagerly reach for games containing strategic elements with a dose of violence, where the player fights with the beast, kills and defeats others. Children playing "killing" during computer games get used to cruelty and identify with the hero, imitating him. Not without significance are also sound effects that intensify the emotions experienced by the players, giving the images more realism and often can also cause aggressive behavior in children and lead to indifference to violence in everyday life. It is true that during the game, the child becomes skilled in using the computer, practices hand-eye coordination, but at the same time fights, inflicts suffering and kills. Aggression is stimulated, but the child learns it and can later transfer to real life.
Excessive and not controlled favorably by children from the Internet via phone and computer and watching TV can cause the formation of negative effects in children such as:
– reduced ability to focus attention, hyperactivity and difficulty concentrating,
– lack of language skills – lack of time to watch, read books, talk,
– loss of imagination – limitation of one's own creativity,
– inability to think and solve problems, predict consequences,
– impatience, the need for constant external stimulation, rapid falling into boredom,
– decrease in academic performance,
– disorders in physical development, postural defects, damage to vision,
– limitation of physical activity – lack of time and willingness for other activities (sports, reading, own creativity, conversations, etc.),
– reduction of social skills and emotional intelligence,
– loss of sensitivity, anesthesia to someone else's pain and harm in real life,
– fear, anxiety, distrust, pessimism, demoralization, aggression,
– deterioration of relations with family members,
– limited time for games and contacts with peers,
– excessive dependence.
The strength of television and the internet is getting used to each other. There is a slow breakdown of the family, because one interlocutor is the phone TV. Gradually, the dialogue in favor of a glass monologue is disappearing. The TV, phone and computer became the third parent to raise our children. It acts like a time bomb, causes indifference and insensitivity to suffering. Excessive tv watching or using a phone, computer, or programs and games not adapted to the level of development of the child has a negative impact on his development and functioning.
For this reason, the child must have a guardian who, through control of clearly defined rules, will protect the child from the negative influences of television and the Internet by:
– clear regulation of the time that the child spends in front of the TV,
– watching programs intended for him with the child, commenting and translating the action, sequences of scenes,
– organizing attractive forms of recreation for the child, enabling him to meet his needs,
– not accustoming the child to the constant presence of the TV and the Internet because he can not fulfill the role of a permanent household member, playmate, or replace childcare.
It is important that we teach children to use television, the internet, the computer and the telephone wisely so that they do not become their slaves.
The child should spend as much time watching TV , playing with the computer and phone as his age and level of development allows. A child up to the age of three should not use the Internet and watch TV at all. For a preschooler, it is enough to use the Internet and television for a maximum of 20-30 minutes during the day, accompanied by a guardian. Six- to nine-year-olds can watch TV, use a computer or phone for up to 45 minutes.
Parents must realize that the responsibility for the development of children lies with them and they should: – accompany the child when he uses the Internet,
– teach the child the principle of limited trust in people and content that they come across in the media,
– know what games their children play, what fairy tales and movies they watch
– determine the rules of which programs, TV fairy tales and games children can use,
– set the maximum time spent in front of the TV, phone, computer and network screen,
– establish that the child can use computer games and watch TV only if the parents are at home,
– consistently apply the principle: first duties then television or computer,
– invite the child's friends to the house. Show other forms of spending free time,
– have knowledge about the dangers of inappropriate content of games, fairy tales, films,
– set a good example of the wise use of media. Limit the time spent in front of the TV or computer to a reasonable minimum, because this is the parents' own example as the first and most important educators of the child.If the parents themselves use the media wisely and without excess, then the child will also act the same.
Summarizing. It is the responsibility of parents to ensure the child's safety, optimal living and development conditions, care, upbringing and preparation of the child for safe use of TV, telephone and computer as well as active, creative, critical reception of content presented by the media.A preschool child is open to the world and people. It imitates parents, guardians, educators. It takes on different attitudes and patterns. In an information and consumption-oriented society, either because of the lack of parental time, insufficient care or love, it is often relegated to the background. Often, reaching for a phone or computer, wanting to replace contact with a parent, the child chooses television, the Internet looking for friends there.
The problem of the influence of media on children is complicated and it is impossible to say unequivocally about its destructive or positive impact on the child. Therefore, it is primarily the family that should provide positive patterns of behavior, basic patterns of perception and understanding of reality. Parents should support the child's cognitive abilities by emphasizing the unreality of the media world and developing a critical attitude towards the mass media. Parents have a duty to protect the child and not to leave him alone in contact with media carriers.
The task of teachers is to support and cooperate with parents consisting in making them aware of how the child can use the benefits of the media, what he can play what to watch, and how long it does not cause harm to the child's body and psyche in preschool age and that it does not translate into his bad, unacceptable behavior in everyday behavior in the family, in contacts with adults, peers as well as the world of plants and animals.
We will protect children from the destructive impact of inappropriate content from the media
and uncontrolled use of IT and communication media by children if we adults, parents do not forget that a day without walking with a child, talking together, laughing and playing, hugging and caressing, a bedtime story read, is a day irretrievably lost. Remember that in the daily prevention of adults, parents can not run out of time even a short conversation only about dreams.
Such our attitudes will inspire trust and love for the world and people in the child, will build a positive image of himself, will satisfy the need for security and love and will certainly protect children from excessive and uncontrolled use of unwanted programs, films and games that are available via television, telephone and computer.
Prepared by: Teacher Dominika Kobus, MSc
- Dubert D.: Cool cartoons for naughty children, [w:] M. Hendry-kowska, Hendrykowski, Violence on the screen, Gajda J., "Media in Education", Impuls, Kraków 2007.
- Ejsmond M., Kosmalska B.: Media, values, upbringing. Cracow 2005.
- Kozlovska A.: The influence of mass media. Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw 2006.
- Petrilak E.: Does television help in the development of the child? Closer to the kindergarten. Wychowanie i edukacja, 11/2005.Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, Poznań 2001.
- Lynx D.: Modern visual means (computer and television) as a threat to real contacts with people. [w:] A. Nowak (ed.): Selected phenomena causing social threats. Cracow 2000.
- "Harmful effects of computer games", www.sop.salwatorianie.pl – article by Fr. Dariusz Sikorski SDS
- "Media and the recipient". Wychowawca 11/2001 – article prof. dr hab. Maria Braun-Gałkowska (psychologist, KUL)
- "The influence of television images of violence on the child's psyche": "Problemy Opiekuńczo-Wychowawcze" No. 6, 1995.B. Leśniak, "The influence of television scenes M. Braun-Galkowska
- Telesińska – Pawlak "The impact of mass media on preschool children", http://www.edukacja.edux.pl